How much energy was released by the magnitude 9. The aftershocks suggest that the earthquake rupture had a maximum length of -- km parallel to the Sunda trench and a width of over km perpendicular to the earthquake source.
Regional tsunami alert centers have been built in Australia, India and Indonesia. However, tsunamis can strike thousands of kilometres away where the earthquake is felt only weakly or not at all.
The area toward the sea was wiped clean of nearly every structure, while closer to the river dense construction in a commercial district showed the effects of severe flooding.
This energy is equivalent to over 1, times that of the Hiroshima atomic bombbut less than that of Tsar Bombathe largest nuclear weapon ever detonated; however, the total physical work done MW and thus energy by the quake was 4.
These volatiles rise into the overlying plate, causing partial melting and the formation of magma. Thailand was struck about two hours later despite being closer to the epicentre, because the tsunami traveled more slowly in the shallow Andaman Sea off its western coast.
Memorials were held in the worst-affected countries - India, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Indonesia - where monks, imams and priests held ceremonies to honor those who perished. However, the northern rupture occurred more slowly than in the south, at about 2.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message Tsunami inundation height seen on a house in Banda Aceh The tsunami struck the west and north coasts of northern Sumatraparticularly in Aceh Province, Indonesia, during the early morning.
Eyewitnesses reported 10 to 12 waves, the second and third being the highest. This deformation is exemplified by the recent April earthquake sequence, which includes the April 11 M 8. This was followed by a large withdrawal of the sea before the second and third waves hit.
This quake, together with the Good Friday earthquake Alaskaand the Great Chilean earthquakeaccount for almost half of the total moment. Eyewitness accounts, photosand videos provided unprecidented documentation of the event. Each of these megathrust earthquakes also spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean.
The Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshockpreceding the main event by over two years. The only recorded earthquakes with a larger MW were the Chilean and Alaskan quakes, with 2.
The aftershock would be considered a major earthquake under ordinary circumstances, but is dwarfed by the mainshock. As well, the tsunami was large enough to be detected in Vancouverwhich puzzled many scientists, as the tsunamis measured in some parts of South America were larger than those measured in some parts of the Indian Ocean.
Overturned cement carrier in Lhoknga The second wave was the largest; it came from the west-southwest within five minutes of the first wave. Around the Indian Ocean, this rare sight reportedly induced people, especially children, to visit the coast to investigate and collect stranded fish on as much as 2.
Geological Survey sees no evidence of a causal relationship between these events. If you want a more complete and technical answer to this question, Richard Gross at JPL offers the following: The last major tsunami was caused by the eruption of Krakatoa.
The actual rupture duration on the fault the time it took for the earthquake to take place on the fault and rupture the entire length was approximately 3 to 4 minutes.
As a result of the rotation in relative motion along the strike of the arc and the interaction of multiple tectonic plates, several interrelated tectonic elements compose the Sumatra-Andaman plate boundary. Such a small change in polar motion excitation will also be difficult to detect.
This is unusual, since earthquakes of magnitude 8 or more occur only about once per year on average. The tsunami wave itself also traveled the globe, and was measured in the Pacific and many other places by tide gauges.
The seismic waves of the earthquake were felt across the planet; as far away as the U. Within hours of the earthquake, killer waves radiating from the epicentre slammed into the coastline of 11 Indian Ocean countries, damaging countries from east Africa to Thailand, killing overpeople in fourteen countries, and inundating coastal communities with waves up to 30 meters 98 ft high.
The length of the day can be measured with an accuracy of about 20 microseconds and calculations of the source properties of the earthquake showed the change in the length of the day to be Andaman Island lies in a very active earthquake zone. Consequently, the tsunami stranded cargo ships and barges and destroyed a cement factory near the Lampuuk coast.
Well presented in easily readable terms with good graphics and illustrations. It took a relatively long time to reach Struisbaai at the southernmost point of Africa, probably because of the broad continental shelf off South Africa and because the tsunami would have followed the South African coast from east to west.
Sri Lanka tsunami height survey: Weh, Breueh, and Nasi, lie just north of the capital city. The Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshockpreceding the main event by over two years. September Learn how and when to remove this template message Fishing boat stranded in Batticaloa The tsunami first arrived on the eastern coast and subsequently refracted around the southern point of Sri Lanka Dondra Head.Analysis of seismograms from the December 26, Sumatra earthquake that generated the devastating tsunami shows that it was much bigger than previously thought and explains in part why the tsunami was so destructive.
On December 26, survivors of Indian Ocean Tsunami marked 10th anniversary of the disaster. Survivors of Asia's tsunami and relatives of itsvictims cried and prayed as they. A large tsunami triggered by the earthquake spread outward from off the Sumatran coast.
The worst part of it washed away whole cities in Indonesia, but every country on the shore of. May 07, · Footage of the earthquake of Dec. 26, off the coast of Northern Sumatra and the ensuing tsunami flooding up the rivers. Global propagation of the Sumatra tsunami (Dec 26, ) computed with the NCTR MOST model displayed on the NOAA Science on a Sphere at the Smithsonian.
Kermadec Event, July 6, Tsunami propagation and mp4 file; MOST Model animations of simulated Tsunami Events. Newport, Oregon. Tsunami SumatraAndaman Indonesia Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsunami The earthquake that generated the great Indian Ocean tsunami of was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at am local time on Sunday, 26 DecemberDownload